which of the following is not an example of disruptive technologies?


Recently, disruptive technologies have become a catchphrase for inventions that change sectors, marketplaces, and even our daily lives. These technologies can make certain business models obsolete and create others. Not all revolutionary innovations are disruptive. This article will discuss disruptive technologies and investigate the smartphone, electric vehicles, blockchain technology, and microwave oven to determine which are not and which of the following is not an example of disruptive technologies?. Our understanding of disruptive innovations will improve by the end of this article.

Disruptive Technology Definition

Before discussing instances, we must define disruptive technologies and separate them from other advances. Clayton Christensen invented “disruptive technology” in “The Innovator’s Dilemma” in 1997. Christensen defines disruptive technologies as simple solutions for narrow markets that challenge and maybe replace mainstream products and services.

Key Disruptive Technology Features:

Market Niche: Disruptive technologies sometimes start with a niche market or problem. They may initially struggle to compete with market leaders.

Simplicity and affordability: These technologies are simpler and cheaper than traditional alternatives, making them more accessible.

Gradual Improvement: Disruptive innovations improve performance and capabilities, broadening their market reach.

As new technologies grow, they disrupt established markets, challenging incumbents and maybe bringing them down.

Let’s assess the four technologies to see which one isn’t disruptive.

The Smartphone

The smartphone is one of our most revolutionary innovations. It changed communication, entertainment, and many other elements of life. 

Does it disrupt technology?

Answer: yes and no. Smartphones disrupted digital cameras, GPS, and phone makers. App ecosystems opened new doors for developers and entrepreneurs. Smartphones initially served a narrow market of tech-savvy people with email, online surfing, and rudimentary apps.

Smartphones were not initially niche solutions. Apple debuted the iPhone in 2007 as a premium product for a large audience. It did not immediately compete with current mobile phones like disruptive technologies do. Instead of disrupting the mobile phone market, it altered it.

Electric cars

Electric vehicles, especially electric cars, are popular as eco-friendly alternatives to gasoline-powered vehicles. With its electric automobiles becoming more popular, Tesla has led this transformation. 

Do EVs disrupt technology?

Electric cars are disruptive. They first targeted environmentally concerned or early adopters as niche items. They were initially more expensive and had less range than gasoline-powered cars. Affordable Ness, range, and performance have improved over time.

Electric vehicles aren’t completely disruptive. They weren’t always low-cost niche market solutions. These ambitious, high-end models competed directly with traditional automobiles. They forced existing manufacturers to invest in electric vehicle technology to stay competitive, not destroy them.

Blockchain technology

Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies use blockchain technology, which has garnered attention in recent years. Decentralised and secure transactions could upset financial institutions and businesses. But is blockchain disruptive?

Blockchain technology has disruptive traits. It started as a response to digital transaction trust and security challenges. It initially targeted bitcoin enthusiasts and developers. It made transactions easier and more transparent than existing financial systems.

Most sectors have yet to be disrupted by blockchain technology. It could change banking, supply chain management, and healthcare, but it has not yet. Technology is still growing and being adopted.

Blockchain has disruptive potential but has not yet affected established sectors.

Microwave Oven

Many households rely on microwave ovens for fast cooking and heating. It’s one of the oldest technologies we’re examining, dating back decades. Is it disruptive technology?

Microwave ovens are not disruptive technologies. A specialised market solution was not its starting point. Instead, it was introduced as a consumer-friendly kitchen equipment. Microwaves were faster and more efficient food heaters, not new cooking methods.

Microwave ovens revolutionised cooking habits and kitchen dynamics, but they did not disrupt culinary methods or markets like disruptive technologies do. They coexist with ovens, stovetops, and other cooking methods.

Economic Impact:

Smartphones created entire sectors around app development, mobile advertising, and e-commerce. Camera, navigation, and music player industries have also been impacted.

Electric vehicles could change the automotive and energy industries, but not completely. They may alter manufacturing, battery production, and charging infrastructure.

Blockchain could revolutionise financial services by eliminating intermediaries. This could change financial institution operations and have major economic effects.

Although convenient, the microwave oven did not disrupt the economy or change employment or industry.

Evolution of Technology:

Smartphones have quickly become multipurpose gadgets beyond communication. They push technology by adding cameras, GPS, and sensors.

Electric vehicle battery, range, and charging infrastructure are improving. As disruptive traits mature, this innovation aligns.

Blockchain advances in scalability, privacy, and consensus. Its capacity to disrupt sectors depends on these advances.

Microwave oven technology has advanced little since its launch. The appliance is essentially the same, with minor design and functionality changes.

Market Adoption:

Many millions of smartphones were sold quickly following their introduction. They transformed due to broad adoption.

In regions with high electric transportation subsidies, electric vehicles are increasing market share.

Blockchain technology has been tested but not widely adopted in most businesses. Constant disruption is its goal.

The microwave oven became popular immediately, yet it did not modify cooking habits or replace conventional ovens.

Cultural and regulatory impact:

Smartphones’ social impact is shown by regulatory discussions regarding privacy, data security, and distracted driving.

Electric vehicles are influencing pollution rules and charging infrastructure. They also affect consumer sustainability sentiments.

Blockchain technology has raised questions regarding cryptocurrency and smart contract regulation. Traditions of trust and governance are challenged.

Other examples had a greater impact on cultural and regulatory discussions than the microwave oven.

Development of Ecosystems

Smartphones have created massive app ecosystems, encouraging innovation and entrepreneurship.

Electric vehicle investment in battery technologies, charging networks, and allied sectors is changing the ecosystem.

The blockchain ecosystem has grown to include entrepreneurs, platforms, and apps exploring its potential across sectors.

The microwave oven did not create big ecosystems or new industries or services.


Which of the following is not an example of disruptive technologies? In comparing the smartphone, electric vehicles, blockchain technology, and microwave oven, only the microwave oven does not suit the disruptive technology description. Initial disruptive innovations are narrow solutions for certain sectors, but they improve and threaten established competitors in broader areas. Smartphones, electric vehicles, and blockchain technology have disruptive potential, but ultimately did not follow the disruptive innovation model. Understanding disruptive technologies illuminates innovation and market transformation’s complexity.


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